This implementation of the Simulation uses the following files:
This is a web app demonstrating a back looking simulation using GPS-logs. By using a simple vehicle and accumulator model the calculation allows testing different charging strategies. The test case should cover at least one complete run at one bus line
Here is a link to a video of the demonstrator in Graz
It is now possible uploading own GPS/GNSS files (first click on the checkbox nearby), please test with GLONASS readings.
If you are bus operator or authority or bus manufacturer please also fill in the respective questionnaiere, so we may adapt our work to your needs, many thanks
readDataForm: Einlesen von 0 Entries
The simulation runs from () to ()
The total mass amounts to 24000 kg
With 221 parallel and 29 serial cells the ESR evaluates to 0.48 Ohms.
versucht aus NMEA_Test.txt NMEA Daten zu lesen
Checks whether charging points match in the List having 1 entries.
In Motion Charging is not active
Heat loss open doors=80259 W
Heat pump actual COP=2.28
Total Losses: frict=11053 drag=563 accel=104 pot=0 Total=11721
Total power charging stations: 0 kW
Start: SOC = 80 %
Distance simulated=0.7 km average velocity 6 km/hr
Runs the tour 1-times
charging time factor
Starts with SOC =80 % charging factor (power*time) =
Ergebnis neue Liste Länge=2127
1 calculations not performed from 2128 in total.
Round = 1: min SOC = 76.5 %
Depth of Discharge = 34.6 %
Total time for all 1 rounds = 0.25 hrs
Total Energy needed for 1 rounds = 1.53 kWh
Charging Power in the Depot for 4hr charging = 1 kW
spec. Energy demand operation=2.07 kWh/km
Total charging duration=0 min.
Heat demand air exchange 4 kW
Charging excl. standby loss charger =0 MJ, while off duty for 22.8 hrs loss = 3.3 MJ
Energy demand per Passenger:
IC_{charging (per kW and tour)} =IC_{charging (per kW)} / (number_{tours per day} × 360 × lifespan_{charging infrastructure})
TCO_{vehicle} = IC_{vehicle} / hours _{in operation total} × hours_{tour}*(1+ maintenance cost fraction_{vehicle per year})
TCO_{driver} = cost_{driver }*hours_{tour}
TCO_{charger}=IC_{spec. charging (per kW and tour)} × Total kW_{charging stations} × (1 + maintenance cost fraction_{charger per year}
TCO_{energy} =Energy_{Charging} × ( spec. cost_{energy (per kWh)}(0) + cost_{Accumulator} per kWh turn around )
overnight charging: Total 1 kW IC/(kW tour)=0.019 €/kW 10 tours per day
DoD=0.35 TCO Bat. =0.0659 €/KWhr
IC discounted for 28800 hours of operation
Total cost per passenger =0.064 € vehicle cost=0.019 € driver cost=0.040 € cost charging infrastructure =0.000 € energy cost=0.004 € storage cost=0.001 €
Total cost per passenger=0.065 € vehicle cost=0.019 € driver cost=0.040 € cost charging infrastructure =0.000 € energy and accumulator cost=0.006 €
XML is inserted here.
Timestamp for insert | related to the GPS-point | |
Duration of the new charging point | sec. | |
kW |
Potential charging pauses/stretches | Input | Catenary |
---|---|---|
0: at 15.445867666667 47.0448235 max. 280 sec. from 2/6/18 08:10:37.2 until 2/6/18 08:15:17.8 | kW | |
after 15.445867666667 47.0448235 from 2/6/18 08:15:17.8 | same as stretch 0 | |
Calculate n-times | ||
Maximum tolerated velocity stillstand | m/s |
Variable | Input | Explanation |
---|---|---|
delayed start time | timestamp, original time domain without insert | |
Cut-off time | timestamp, original time domain without insert |
(for retrieving insert locations)
Variable | Input | Explanation |
---|---|---|
max. duration with open doors | sec. | |
Number doors | Number double doors | |
Doors width | m | Total width double door |
Doors height | m | |
Bus length | m | |
Insulation thickness | mm | |
u-value windows | W/m²K | |
Share of glazing | % | for side walls |
per hour | ||
- | maximum COP | |
% | ||
W | ||
Ambient temperature | °C | for calculation of heat loss and SOC |
Size of accumulator | kWh | usable energy capability |
Initial SOC accumulator | % | determining charge at the start of the trip |
Factor tyre friction | % | factor for the friction coefficient in case of snow or gravel on the road, f_{R} calculated depending on velocity |
Air resistance A*c_{w} air drag | m^{2} | cross-sectional area * drag coefficient |
Mass of the vehicle: | kg | including all fluids and the driver |
Max. passenger load: | kg | maximum load, theoretically the bus may recover energy if passengers board on a hill |
Other electric consumers: | kW | electric consumers for steering, doors, passenger information, light... |
Wind speed: | m/s | for heat loss with open doors |
max. vehicle speed: | km/h | determining relative RPM of the electric machine when calculating efficiency |
max. mechanical propulsion power: | kW | determining relative power of the electric machine when calculating efficiency |
Cell resistance: | mOhm | cell resistance in mOhm |
Cell voltage: | V | cell Voltage |
Cell capacity: | mAh | cell capacity |
Amps for achieving the capacity: | A | I ref. |
Accumulator voltage: | V | battery voltage |
Efficiency charging: | % | Grid to vehicle balance (losses of inductive or conductive charging) |
Max. charging power: | kW | until % SOC |
Max. charging power at 100% SOC: | kW | at 100 % SOC |
Standby power (loss) fast charger: | W | without charging and at 100 % SOC, lower with overnight charging |
Min. charging time: | sec | shorter stops not used for charging - changes may invalidate the input for charging power |
Variable | Input | Explanation |
---|---|---|
Investment cost vehicle without energy storage: | € | procurement costs vehicle without accumulator but including electronics |
Investment cost energy storage: | €/kWh | procurement costs energy storage (accumulator including BMS) |
Operation hours vehicle: | hrs | productive operation hours in the total lifespan |
Service and maintenance cost vehicle: | %/a | service and maintenance costs vehicle without accumulator but including electronics |
Specific total cost vehicle accumulator : | €/kWh | round trip storage cost including depreciation and maintenance. |
Driver cost: | €/hr | including overheads and costs for unproductive time |
Specific investment cost stationary charging infrastructure: | €/kW | procurement costs charging infrastructure |
Lifespan charging infrastructure: | yrs | maximum years in operation |
Specific service and maintenance cost charging infrastructure: | %/a | service and maintenance costs charging infrastructure |
Specific investment cost en-route charging infrastructure: | €/m | procurement costs catenary en-route charging infrastructure |
Lifespan en-route charging infrastructure: | yrs | maximum years in operation |
Specific service and maintenance cost en-route charging infrastructure: | %/a | service and maintenance costs charging infrastructure |
Energy procurement cost: | €/kWh | electricity for charging |
Number of tours per day: | average round trips |
Computing time for Search Pauses:0.184 sec.
Computing time for Modify Pauses:0 sec.
Computing time for Computation of kW Charging:0 sec.
Computing time for Propulsion Calculation:0.073 sec.
Computing time for Energy Balance:0.21 sec.