This implementation of the Simulation uses the following files:

Logo Project PLATON

PLATON Mock-Up calculating SOC


This is a web app demonstrating a back looking simulation using GPS-logs. By using a simple vehicle and accumulator model the calculation allows testing different charging strategies. The test case should cover at least one complete run at one bus line

Here is a link to a video of the demonstrator in Graz

Flow Chart Simulation


  1. select the NMEA logfile
  2. enter a cut off time of "02/14/18 12:10:08"
  3. set Power of charging pause 1 to zero (actually the stop is due to congestion)
  4. click on calculate
  5. you might enter one additional charging pause by clicking in the map (timestamp should be before cut-off time), position 2 is a candidate

Beware, given data are estimates and bugs might be still leading to invalid results!

It is now possible uploading own GPS/GNSS files (first click on the checkbox nearby), please test with GLONASS readings.

If you are bus operator or authority or bus manufacturer please also fill in the respective questionnaiere, so we may adapt our work to your needs, many thanks


Development level as of 2018-09-07

Rechargable battery cell modell

  • solving for current and voltage using internal resistance of the cell pack
  • no separate model for EDLC

Charging agnostic energy balance

  • depot or overnight charging
  • opportunity charging, determining stops automatically
  • en-route charging, defining chargung streteches manually
  • time to disconnect to be considered in the simulation
  • Charging losses calculated dusing the charging efficinecy.
  • Ancillary consumers may be caclulated on the basis of bus lentgh, number of axles and doors

Vehicle translation

  • model should work independing of the data acquistion rate
  • filters for velocity input, depending on variance (useful for 5 Hz)
  • assumption for rotational masses
  • vehicle library to choose from
  • efficiency map introducted for motor and generator (estimation), max. power and efficiency when exceeding max. power assumed.

Heat demand

  • minimum convective heat loss defined, velocity adds to that
  • no heating/cooling energy for the rechargeable battery pack


  • choosing own GPS log files possible

Added functionality

  • Variation of energy storage and charging power to satisfy SOC-requirements
  • What-If-scenarios to be applied manually
  • Static cost calculation without using DoD
  • Calculation of heat loss through open doors

Last changes

  • The value for opportunity charging may be now set with one click for all stations — 18/11/2018
  • The ambient temperature is now read read from the form — 7/11/2018
  • Existing charging points are not counted twice if used multiple times — 14/11/2018
  • catenary stretches used in both directions are discounted — 17/11/2018
  • The costs of degrading the rechargeable battery now included, introducing a dependency of the usable cycles from the DoD — 18/11/2018
  • When surpassing 100% SOC, the charging losses are set to the given input value — 20/11/2018
  • The standby losses of the chargers are added to the losses during the operation for the given number of rounds
  • The mouseover functionalitry may be disabled for the GPS figure
  • An empiric curve is used for open door heat losses and the time with open door might be limited.
  • The run is simulated using a dashboard

Candidates for improvements — please state your preferences

  • Improving usability defining catenary stretches 
  • A/C modelling - defrosting the evaporator - eventually using exhaust or waste heat? 
  • Validation of rolling resistance with snow (thin movable layer of salty pressed snow on tarmac) 
  • Recording of real stops (open doors) and passenger exchange 
  • Modelling heat loss of open doors depending on open time and temperature 
  • Variable data for passengees leaving/boarding at stops 
  • Input field for bus height (double decker) 
  • Validating drag coefficient with batteries on the roof (necessary for higher speeds) 
  • Additional efficiency maps of various electric machines 
  • Allowing to reach hidden points when clicking on the route in the GPS figure of the course 
  • Improved modelling of standby losses of the charging facilities 
  • Adding depreciation for accumulator as alternative cost model 
  • Better filtering of altitude 
  • Ancilary power demand, depending on selectable appliances (Ticketing, Infotainment, WLAN...)
  • Tours should be combined for an task assignment
  • other as 

readDataForm: Einlesen von 0 Entries

With 221 parallel and 29 serial cells the ESR evaluates to 0.48 Ohms.

versucht aus NMEA_Test.txt NMEA Daten zu lesen

Checks whether charging points match in the List having 1 entries.

In Motion Charging is not active

Heat loss open doors=80259 W

Heat pump actual COP=2.28

Total power charging stations: 0 kW

Variant Depot Charging

Start: SOC = 80 %

Distance simulated=0.7 km average velocity 6 km/hr

Runs the tour 1-times

1 calculations not performed from 2128 in total.

Round = 1: min SOC = 76.5 %

Depth of Discharge = 35 %

Total time for all 1 rounds = 0.25 hrs

Total Energy needed for 1 rounds = 1.5 kWh

Charging Power in the Depot for 4hr charging = 1 kW

Electric Bus Simulator

47.039 47.039 47.043 47.043 47.046 47.046 47.05 47.05 47.054 47.054 47.057 47.057 ° 15.439 15.444 15.448 15.453 ° Start Stop (0) Position of the potential charging stops Evaluating "NMEA_Test.txt" Die Grafik ist ein Service von .PHP_EOL
Logo Project PLATON
kWh/km / Pcharge
km/h % \r\n m kW \r\n bus speed km/hr (running avg) altitude (running avg) Pprop kW Pheat+oth/100 W Pcharge kW SOC in % IAccu A 0 -500 20 -250 40 0 60 250 80 500 100 750 2/6/18 08:08:26.4 2/6/18 08:08:33 2/6/18 08:08:40 2/6/18 08:08:47 2/6/18 08:08:54 2/6/18 08:09:01 2/6/18 08:09:08 2/6/18 08:09:15 2/6/18 08:09:22 2/6/18 08:09:29 2/6/18 08:09:36 2/6/18 08:09:43 2/6/18 08:09:50 2/6/18 08:09:57 2/6/18 08:10:04 2/6/18 08:10:11 2/6/18 08:10:18.2 2/6/18 08:10:25 2/6/18 08:10:32 2/6/18 08:10:39 2/6/18 08:10:46 2/6/18 08:10:53 2/6/18 08:11:00 2/6/18 08:11:07 2/6/18 08:11:14 2/6/18 08:11:21 2/6/18 08:11:28 2/6/18 08:11:35 2/6/18 08:11:42 2/6/18 08:11:49 2/6/18 08:11:56 2/6/18 08:12:03 2/6/18 08:12:10 2/6/18 08:12:17 2/6/18 08:12:24 2/6/18 08:12:31 2/6/18 08:12:38 2/6/18 08:12:45 2/6/18 08:12:52 2/6/18 08:12:59 2/6/18 08:13:06 2/6/18 08:13:13 2/6/18 08:13:20 2/6/18 08:13:27 2/6/18 08:13:34 2/6/18 08:13:41 2/6/18 08:13:48 2/6/18 08:13:55 2/6/18 08:14:02 2/6/18 08:14:09 2/6/18 08:14:16 2/6/18 08:14:23.2 2/6/18 08:14:30 2/6/18 08:14:37 2/6/18 08:14:44 2/6/18 08:14:51 2/6/18 08:14:58 2/6/18 08:15:05 2/6/18 08:15:12 2/6/18 08:15:19 2/6/18 08:15:26 2/6/18 08:15:33 2/6/18 08:15:40 2/6/18 08:15:47 Evaluating "NMEA_Test.txt" – last SOC=76.5 % – Σ 1.5 kWh Usable accumulator capacity 55 kWh Die Grafik ist ein Service von

Results Energy Balance

spec. Energy demand operation=2.1 kWh/km

Total charging duration=0 min.

Heat demand air exchange 4 kW

Operational standby loss =0 MJ, while off duty for 22.8 hrs = 3.3 MJ

Energy demand per Passenger:

  • Propulsion: 0.035 MJ
  • Heating: 0.015 MJ
  • Other: 0.012 MJ
  • Charging Losses : 0.036 MJ
Energy demand operation (excluding charging infrastructure) Duration tour=0.12 hrs Energy demand per passengerovernight charging =0.026 kWh Duration tour=0.12 hrs Energy demand per passengerovernight charging =0.026 kWh Propulsion Heating Other Charging Losses 36% 16% 12% 36% Die Grafik ist ein Service von
0 0 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.5 kWh 0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 km Cumulated Energy Demand Evaluating "NMEA_Test.txt" Regression y = -0.31 +2.41 × x  – Correlation (n = 2127) = 0.93 Die Grafik ist ein Service von .PHP_EOL

Cost Calculation Scheme

ICcharging (per kW and tour) =ICcharging (per kW) / (numbertours per day × 360 × lifespancharging infrastructure)

TCOvehicle = ICvehicle / hours in operation total × hourstour*(1+ maintenance cost fractionvehicle per year)

TCOdriver = costdriver *hourstour

TCOcharger=ICspec. charging (per kW and tour) × Total kWcharging stations × (1 + maintenance cost fractioncharger per year

TCOenergy =EnergyCharging × ( spec. costenergy (per kWh)(0) + costAccumulator per kWh turn around )

overnight charging: Total 1 kW IC/(kW tour)=0.019 €/kW 10 tours per day

DoD=0.35 TCO Bat. =0.0659 €/KWhr

IC discounted for 28800 hours of operation

Total cost per passenger =0.064 € vehicle cost=0.019 € driver cost=0.040 € cost charging infrastructure =0.000 € energy cost=0.004 € storage cost=0.001 €

TCO total cost of operation overnight charging incl. charging infrastr. Duration tour=0.12 hrs Energy demand operation=2.4 kWh Sum charging power all stations=0 kW Duration tour=0.12 hrs Energy demand operation=2.4 kWh Sum charging power all stations=0 kW vehicle cost driver cost cost charging infrastructure energy cost accumulator cost 30% 62% 6% Die Grafik ist ein Service von

Total cost per passenger=0.065 € vehicle cost=0.019 € driver cost=0.040 € cost charging infrastructure =0.000 € energy and accumulator cost=0.006 €

Alternative TCO-calculation overnight charging incl. charging infrastr. Duration tour=0.12 hrs Energy demand operation=2.4 kWh Sum charging power all stations=0 kW Duration tour=0.12 hrs Energy demand operation=2.4 kWh Sum charging power all stations=0 kW vehicle cost driver cost cost charging infrastructure energy and accumulator cost 30% 61% 9% Die Grafik ist ein Service von

Data Input

Data is stored by your currently used Internet Browser (and only this one installation) persistently, see article.

XML is inserted here.

You may click on one Point in the map (with still stand) or manually enter one additional charging time insert

Timestamp for insertrelated to the GPS-point
Duration of the new charging point sec.

Input data for opportunity charging

Potential charging pauses/stretchesInputCatenary
0: at 15.445867666667 47.0448235 max. 280 sec. from 2/6/18 08:10:37.2 until 2/6/18 08:15:17.8  kW
after 15.445867666667 47.0448235 from 2/6/18 08:15:17.8same as stretch 0
Calculate n-times
Maximum tolerated velocity stillstand m/s

delayed start time timestamp, original time domain without insert
Cut-off time timestamp, original time domain without insert

Select another NMEA data file


  (for retrieving insert locations)

Vehicle data for extreme operational conditions (winter)

max. duration with open doors sec.
Number doors Number double doors
Doors width m Total width double door
Doors height m
Bus length m
Insulation thickness mm
u-value windows W/m²K
Share of glazing %for side walls
per hour
- maximum COP
Ambient temperature °C for calculation of heat loss and SOC
Size of accumulator  kWh usable energy capability
Initial SOC accumulator % determining charge at the start of the trip
Factor tyre friction % factor for the friction coefficient in case of snow or gravel on the road, fR calculated depending on velocity
Air resistance A*cw air drag m2 cross-sectional area * drag coefficient
Mass of the vehicle: kg including all fluids and the driver
Max. passenger load: kg maximum load, theoretically the bus may recover energy if passengers board on a hill
Other electric consumers: kW electric consumers for steering, doors, passenger information, light... 
Wind speed: m/s for heat loss with open doors
max. vehicle speed: km/h determining relative RPM of the electric machine when calculating efficiency
max. mechanical propulsion power: kW determining relative power of the electric machine when calculating efficiency
Cell resistance: mOhm cell resistance in mOhm
Cell voltage: V cell Voltage
Cell capacity: mAh cell capacity
Amps for achieving the capacity: A I ref.
Accumulator voltage: V battery voltage
Efficiency charging: % Grid to vehicle balance (losses of inductive or conductive charging)
Max. charging power: kW until % SOC
Max. charging power at 100% SOC: kW at 100 % SOC
Standby power (loss) fast charger: W without charging and at 100 % SOC, lower with overnight charging
Min. charging time: sec shorter stops not used for charging - changes may invalidate the input for charging power

Economic data bus and charging facilities

Investment cost vehicle without energy storage:  € procurement costs vehicle without accumulator but including electronics
Investment cost energy storage:  €/kWh procurement costs energy storage (accumulator including BMS)
Operation hours vehicle: hrs productive operation hours in the total lifespan
Service and maintenance cost vehicle: %/a service and maintenance costs vehicle without accumulator but including electronics
Specific total cost vehicle accumulator :  €/kWh round trip storage cost including depreciation and maintenance.
Driver cost:  €/hr including overheads and costs for unproductive time
Specific investment cost stationary charging infrastructure:  €/kW procurement costs charging infrastructure
Lifespan charging infrastructure: yrs maximum years in operation
Specific service and maintenance cost charging infrastructure: %/a service and maintenance costs charging infrastructure
Specific investment cost en-route charging infrastructure:  €/m procurement costs catenary en-route charging infrastructure
Lifespan en-route charging infrastructure: yrs maximum years in operation
Specific service and maintenance cost en-route charging infrastructure: %/a service and maintenance costs charging infrastructure
Energy procurement cost:  €/kWh electricity for charging
Number of tours per day: average round trips


Your comments:
The calculation may need approx. 10 seconds for a full calculation of the large dataset, 5 seconds for the short! Calculation is excuted on the server.

Computing time for Search Pauses:0.161 sec.

Computing time for Modify Pauses:0 sec.

Computing time for Computation of kW Charging:0 sec.

Computing time for Propulsion Calculation:0.06 sec.

Computing time for Energy Balance:0.168 sec.